Course Title: Aircraft Instrument Fundamentals

Part B: Course Detail

Teaching Period: Term1 2011

Course Code: AERO5386

Course Title: Aircraft Instrument Fundamentals

School: 130T Engineering (TAFE)

Campus: City Campus

Program: C6011 - Advanced Diploma of Engineering (Aerospace)

Course Contact : Steven Bevan

Course Contact Phone: +61 3 9925 4137

Course Contact Email:steven.bevan@rmit.edu.au


Name and Contact Details of All Other Relevant Staff

Andrew Kim
Location: City, 57.5.20
Telephone: 99254295
Fax: 99258099
Email: andrew.kim@rmit.edu.au

Nominal Hours: 60

Regardless of the mode of delivery, represent a guide to the relative teaching time and student effort required to successfully achieve a particular competency/module. This may include not only scheduled classes or workplace visits but also the amount of effort required to undertake, evaluate and complete all assessment requirements, including any non-classroom activities.

Pre-requisites and Co-requisites

EEET6533 Aerospace Electronic Fundamentals

Course Description

This course develops knowledge of the principles of operation and the application of aircraft instrumentation. Areas of study include:

Requirements and Mechanisms
Panel lighting
Remote indicating systems
Fuel quantity and flow measuring systems
Pitotstatic systems
Direct reading magnetic compass systems
Gyroscopic instruments
Gyro-magnetic compass systems
Engine Indicating Systems
Temperature Indicating Systems
Flight Director Systems
Flight Data Recording


National Codes, Titles, Elements and Performance Criteria

National Element Code & Title:

VBH159 Aircraft Instrument Fundamentals


Learning Outcomes


1. State the ICAO instrumentation requirements and describe instrumentation elements, mechanisms, error sources and temperature compensation.
2. Describe the lighting of panel-mounted instruments.
3. Describe concepts and terms relating to the operation of aircraft instrumentation DC synchronous systems.
4. Describe the operation of engine indicating systems.
5. Describe the operation of Temperature Indicating Systems.
6. Describe the operation of fuel quantity and flow systems.
7. Describe the principle of operation of pitotstatic flight instruments.
8. Describe the construction and operation of Direct Reading Magnetic compasses.
9. Describe and explain the operation of flight instruments incorporating gyroscopes and define related terms.
10. Describe and explain using words and diagrams, the operation of gyro-magnetic compass systems.
11. Describe and explain the operation of a flight director system (FDS) to block diagram level.
12. Describe and explain the operation of accelerometers, fatigue meters and flight data recorders.


Details of Learning Activities

1.1 State the requirements for instrumentation in accordance with the International Civil aviation Organisation (ICAO).
<font face="Times New Roman">1.2 Describe the following elements of an instrument system:
</font><font size="2">detecting
</font><font size="2">measuring
</font><font size="2">coupling
indicating
1.3 Describe how the following components function in instrument systems:
levers
rods
gears
1.4 Describe the function of hairsprings and jewelled bearings.
1.5 Define the following terms:
range error
position error
</font><font size="2">hysteresis error
random error
1.6 Describe the following methods of temperature compensation in instrument mechanisms:
bi-metal strip
thermo-resistance
thermo-magnetic shunt</font>

<font size="2"></font><font size="2">2.1 Describe the types of instrument lighting, including:
flood lighting
pillar lights
bridge lighting
internal (edge) lighting</font>

<font size="2">2.2 List the types of control panel lighting, including:
</font><font size="2">integrated
electroulminescent</font>

<font size="2"></font><font size="2">3.1 Describe the purpose of DC synchronous systems
3.2 Describe the principle of operation of DC synchronous systems
3.3 Describe the purpose of AC synchronous systems
3.4 Describe the principle of operation of AC synchronous systems
3.5 State the purpose and identify the circuit symbols of the following:
torque synchro system
torque synchro transmitter (TX) torque synchro receiver (TR)
control synchro system
control synchro transmitter (CX)
control synchro transformer (CT)
torque synchro differential transmitter (TDX)
</font><font size="2">control synchro differential transmitter (CDX) synchro resolver
E and I bar sensors
Inear variable differential transformer (LVDT)
3.6 Describe the differences between torque and control synchros
3.7 Describe the principle of operation of the following:
torque synchro system
torque synchro transmitter (TX)
torque synchro receiver (TR)
control synchro system
</font><font size="2">control synchro transmitter (CX)
</font><font size="2">control synchro transformer (CT)
</font><font size="2">torque synchro differential transmitter (TDX)
control synchro differential transmitter (CDX)
synchro resolver
</font><font size="2">E and I bar sensors
linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)

4.1 Describe the operation of DC speed measuring systems
4.2 Describe the operation of AC speed measuring systems
4.3 Describe the operation of pulsed speed measuring systems
4.4 Describe the operation of oil pressure indicating systems
4.5 Describe the operation of manifold pressure indicating systems
4.6 Describe the operation of engine pressure ratio gauges
4.7 Describe the operation of engine vibration monitoring systems
4.8 Describe the operation of torquemeters

5.1 Define Static Air Temperature (SAT), Ram Air Temperature (RAT) and Total Air Temperature TAT
5.2 Describe the operation of Wheatstone Bridge based temperature indicating systems
5.3 Describe the operation of Thermocouple temperature indicating systems
5.4 List the various combinations of Thermocouple materials used and state their operating parameters
5.5 Describe the operation of the cold junction compensation for thermocouple leads and probes
5.6 Describe the construction and operation of radiometer  type temperature indicating systems
5.7 Describe the construction and operation of radiation pyrometer type temperature indicating systems

6.1 State the difference between ‘Volumetric’ and ‘Mass’ fuel indicating systems
6.2 State the effects of temperature and density on fuel quantity indicating systems
6.3 List the types of DC volumetric indicating systems
6.4 Describe the operation of mass fuel quantity indicating systems
6.5 State the requirements of fuel flow measuring systems
6.6 Describe the operation of fuel flow  measuring systems

<font face="Times New Roman">7.1 State the layers of the atmosphere and describe the effects of altitude on pressure and temperature
</font><font face="Times New Roman">7.2 Describe the effects of humidity, temperature and pressure on air density
</font><font face="Times New Roman">7.3 Describe the characteristics of the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) and the methods of measuring atmospheric pressure 
</font><font face="Times New Roman">7.4 In terms of the ISA define: 
</font><font size="2">lapse rate 
</font><font size="2">density 
</font><font size="2">temperature 
</font><font size="2">pressure 
</font><font face="Times New Roman">7.5 Describe the construction, operation  and function of the following sensing devices:
</font><font size="2">Bellows (absolute and differential) 
<font size="2">Bourdon tubes 
<font size="2">Capsules (absolute and differential) 
<font size="2">Diaphragms 
 <font face="Times New Roman">7.6 </font><font face="Times New Roman">describe the construction and operation of pitot, pitot/static probes and static vents (primary and alternate) 
 </font><font face="Times New Roman">7.7 </font><font face="Times New Roman">State the heating requirements for pitot, pitot/static probes and the methods of indication 
 </font><font face="Times New Roman">7.8 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Explain position error and its effect on pitot static instruments 
 </font><font face="Times New Roman">7.9 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Describe the layout of a typical pitot static aircraft system 
 </font><font size="2">7.10 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Carry out a pitot static leak test in accordance with (IAW) the relevant orders on both VFR and IFR aircraft 
 </font><font face="Times New Roman">7.11 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Describe the construction and operation of an altimeter and explain the effects of temperature and atmospheric pressure changes on their indication 
 </font><font face="Times New Roman">7.12 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Describe the different methods of presentation of altimeter indications 
 </font><font face="Times New Roman">7.13 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Define the terms: 
 </font><font size="2">QFE 
 </font><font size="2">QNE 
</font><font size="2"> QNH 
 </font><font face="Times New Roman">7.14 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Describe the methods of adjustment applied to an altimeter to allow for the application of the settings of QFE, QNE, QNH 
 </font><font face="Times New Roman">7.15 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Define the term Flight Level and describe the effect on altimeter reading when 1013.2 mb is set on the barometric scale 
 </font><font face="Times New Roman">7.16 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Describe the serviceability tests which can be applied to the altimeter system IAW relevant orders and instructions 
 </font><font face="Times New Roman">7.17 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Describe the construction and operation of the vertical speed indicator and the instantaneous vertical speed indicator 
 </font><font face="Times New Roman">7.18 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Define the following terms: 
</font><font size="2">Indicated, calibrated and true airspeed 
</font><font size="2">Mach number and critical mach number
</font><font size="2">Maximum mach operating (MMO) 
</font><font size="2">Sonic, subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds 
</font><font size="2">speed of sound
</font><font size="2">Velocity maximum operating  (VMO) 
</font><font face="Times New Roman">7.19 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Describe the construction and operation of: 
</font><font size="2">airspeed switches 
</font><font size="2">airspeed indicators 
</font><font size="2">Mach airspeed indicators 
</font><font size="2">Mach meters 
</font><font size="2">Maximum allowable airspeed indicators 
</font><font face="Times New Roman">7.20 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Describe the construction and operation of a typical altitude alerting and reporting system including encoding altimeters 
</font><font face="Times New Roman">7.21 </font><font face="Times New Roman">State the purpose of a central air data computer system (CADC) 
</font><font face="Times New Roman">7.22 </font><font face="Times New Roman">State the purpose of a :
</font><font size="2">stall warning system
angle of attack system (Alpha Poles)</font></font>

 <font face="Times New Roman">8.1 Define the following terms in relation to terrestrial magnetism: 
</font><font size="2">aclinic line or magnetic equator 
</font><font size="2">agonic line 
</font><font size="2">angle of dip 
</font><font size="2">deviation 
</font><font size="2">isoclinic line 
</font><font size="2">isogonal line 
</font><font size="2">magnetic meridian 
</font><font size="2">magnetic and geographic poles 
</font><font size="2">variation or declination.
</font><font face="Times New Roman">8.2 Describe the construction and operation of a direct reading magnetic compass
</font><font face="Times New Roman">8.3 Describe the following inherent errors or deficiencies in direct reading compasses and the methods used to overcome them:
</font><font size="2">Soft iron and hard iron magnetism 
</font><font size="2">A, B, C errors
Acceleration and turning errors</font>

</font></font></font>

 

 

 

<font face="Times New Roman">9.1 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Describe the operation of a gyroscope when used as a reference for displacement and rate
</font><font face="Times New Roman">9.2 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Describe the limitations of a displacement gyroscope 
</font><font face="Times New Roman">9.3 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Describe the effect of rotor speed change on the output of a rate gyroscope 
</font><font face="Times New Roman">9.4 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Define the term tied gyroscope 
</font><font face="Times New Roman">9.5 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Describe the errors that affect a spinning mass gyroscope, including: 
</font><font size="2">real drift 
</font><font size="2">apparent drift 
</font><font size="2">transport rate 
</font><font face="Times New Roman">9.6 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Describe the method of correction for the following errors: 
</font><font size="2">real drift 
</font><font size="2">apparent drift 
</font><font size="2">transport rate 
</font><font face="Times New Roman">9.7 </font><font face="Times New Roman">Describe the operation of a displacement gyroscope when used in artificial horizons and directional gyros 
</font><font face="Times New Roman">9.8 </font><font face="Times New Roman">State the purpose of erection systems used on gyroscopes and describe their operation in artificial horizons and directional gyros 
</font><font face="Times New Roman">9.9 </font>State the purpose and describe the principle of operation of a turn and slip indicator

</font>

 

 

 

10.1 Sketch the block diagram of a gyro-magnetic compass system 
10.2 List the advantages of a gyro-magnetic compass system over direct reading compasses

10.3 Describe the principle of operation of flux detector valves 
10.4 Describe the two modes of gyro-magnetic compass system operation

10.5 Describe the principle of operation of gyro-magnetic compass systems

11.1 State the purpose of an FDS 
11.2 List the components of a typical FDS

11.3 State the purpose of the controls and displays on: 
horizontal situation indicators (HSIs)

attitude direction indicators (ADIs) 
11.4 Describe the operation of an FDS to block diagram level

12.1 State the purpose and describe the principle of operation of: 
accelerometers 
fatigue meters
flight data recorders


Teaching Schedule

Week 1: Requirements and Standards.

Week 2: Instrument Mechanics and displays

Week 3: Instrument Panels and Lightings

Weeks 4: Pitot Static Instruments

Week 5: Pitot Static Instruments

Week 6: Gyroscopic Principles

Week 7: Gyroscopic Principles

Week 8: Heading and Indicating Instruments

Week 9: Heading and Indicating Instruments

Week 10: Measurement of Engine Speed

Week 11: Measurement of Temperature

Week 12: Fuel Indicating Systems, Measurement of Pressure

Week 13: Synchronous Data Transmission

Week 14: Revision

Week 15: Final Examination (Closed book)


Learning Resources

Prescribed Texts


References

Pallet E.H.J., Aircraft Instruments, 3rd ed., Longman, London.

Anderson, J., Fundamentals of Aircraft Flight and Engine Instruments

Bose, K., 1981, 4th ed Aviation Electronics, H.W. Sams, Indianapolos

EA-AIS, 1985, Aircraft Instrument Systems, Casper, Wyo., ISBN 0891000623

Kendal, B., 1993., Manual of Avionics, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Melbourne, Aust.

Eisman Thomas. E., Aircraft Electricity and Electronics., 5th ed., McMillan

Jepperson. Sanderson, Training Products (United Airlines), 1991., Avionic Fundamentals, Casper, Wyo.

Henderson. Max F., 1993, Aircraft Instruments and Avionics for A & P Technicians, Casper, Wyo., ISBN 0891002936


Other Resources


Overview of Assessment

To successfully to complete this course the student is required to pass written assessment tasks and demonstrate skills and ability by completing practical tasks to aerospace standards.


Assessment Tasks

Participants are required to complete two assessment tasks. The first assessment task is an assignment worth 30%. The second assessment task (70%) is a closed book final examination at the end of the course.

Assessment Item 1 (30%): Assignment

Assessment Item 2 (70%): FINAL EXAMINATION


Assessment Matrix

 Learning Outcomes% of Assignment
Assignment1 to 1330
Examination1 to 1370

Course Overview: Access Course Overview