Professor Robert Shanks

Position

Emeritus Professor

School /
Work Unit

School of Science

Contact Details

+61 3 9925 2122

robert.shanks@rmit.edu.au

Location

Building: 3
Level: 2
Room: 18

City campus

College/Portfolio

Science, Engineering and Health

Qualifications

  • DAppSc (RMIT) 2003
  • PhD (La Trobe) 1972
  • Grad Dip Ed (Tertiary, Hawthorn Inst Educ) 1982
  • FRMIT (Management) 1978
  • FRMIT (App Chem) 1971
  • MSc (La Trobe) 1969
  • ARMIT (App Chem) 1966
  • FRACI 1986-2010

Summary of responsibilities

  • Leader, Polymer Science Research
  • Postgraduate supervisor (Category 1)
  • Chemistry Seminars Co-ordinator
  • ONPS1145 Research Methods – Project Planning & Document Preparation
  • ONPS2317 Honours Project Supervisor
  • ONPS1244 Honours Chemistry – Polymer Science
  • ONPS2314 Honours Chemistry – Thermal Analysis

Research Interests

Research Aim

Synthesis and modification of nano-structured materials and biopolymers with enhanced physical, chemical and thermal properties, development of functional nano-materials, and investigation of processes of controlling the self-assembly of nano-structures, with emphasis on thermochemical and thermophysical properties.

Research Topics

Composites, blends and surfaces

  • Nanocomposites and surface treated fillers based on core-crosslinked star polymers silicates and related materials; graphene, carbon and mineral nanotube composites;
  • Polyurethanes, polyolefins, elastomers and their blends, composites and structural modification;
  • Characterisation of surface functionalised materials;
  • Coefficient of friction, damping and surface roughness of slip resistant surfaces;
  • Self-repair and relaxation of high performance carbon fibre composites;
  • Thermochemistry of nanomaterials with emphasis on: thermomechanometry (TM) including static, dynamic and modulated force TM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and modulated temperature DSC (mT-DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG).

Biopolymer and polymers from natural resources

  • Polymers derived from renewable/natural resources;
  • Wood characteristics, degradation and protection in structural applications;
  • Starch materials for packaging;
  • Thermogravimetry correlated with PCA for identification of cellulose sources;
  • Biopolymer compositions including poly(hydroxybutyrate), poly(lactate), and other polymers from natural products and renewable resources, modified natural fibre composites;
  • Food thermochemistry and texture;

Researchers

The Polymer Science Research Group has researchers, comprising group leader, postdoctoral research scientist, postgraduate students, undergraduate, project students, inter-disciplinary and international collaborators, researchers and visiting researchers.

Awards

  • BHERT (Business Higher Education Round Table) Award for academic-industry collaboration, 2005; RACI Polymer Division Citation, 1990.
  • CRC Association Award and CRC for Polymers Chairman Award 2005.
  • Doctor of Applied Science (2003) by publication and thesis.
  • RMIT University Supervisor of the Year 1997
  • RMIT University Most Published Awards 1995, 1996.

Industry/professional/community involvement

Extensive consulting experience (since 1989); major industrial projects with many major companies and small businesses. This work included problem solving related to product failures, production problems and selection of materials. Materials include plastics, rubbers, biomaterials, composites, paint and ink.

Resources and Facilities for Polymer Science

Thermal Analysis

Perkin-Elmer DSC8000 with autosampler and Intracooler II, Pyris 1 DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) with low temperature Intracooler IIP, Pyris 1 DSC, DSC7, TGA7, Pyris 1 TGA (thermogravimetry) (Perkin-Elmer). DSC is used for the study of crystallisation and melting of polymers, crystallinity, glass transitions, reactions, stability and degradation, purity of organic chemicals. Temperature modulated (dynamic) DSC is used to study thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to thermal events. Thermal fractionation is performed by using a step-wise annealing program. TGA is used to study composition, stability and degradation, adsorption-desorption.

Mechanical Testing

Dynamic mechanical spectrometers thermomechanical analysers (Perkin-Elmer DMA8000, TA Instruments Q800 DMA and Q400EM TMA, Perkin-Elmer {Seiko} Diamond DMA, Perkin-Elmer DMA7e, Rheometrics DMTA IV) and dielectric thermal analyser (Micromeritics DEA). DMA is used to study the combined effects of temperature, frequency and all types of static and dynamic forces on polymers. Many standard tests can be performed using various sample geometries and clamping orientations on very small samples. Examples include stress-strain, dynamic moduli-temperature, creep recovery, stress relaxation, softening temperature and time-temperature superposition master-curves. DEA is used to study the effect of electrical force on polymers and can be used to measure temperature transitions and reactions.

Instron Universal Mechanical Test Instrument 4465 has various fittings for large and small tensile, bending, compression, adhesion, stress relaxation tests. Other test instruments include Izod and Charpy impact. For performing all types of mechanical tests 5 kN and 100 N load cells. Mainly used for testing plastics, fibres, films, composites, elastomers, adhesives.

Microscopy

Optical microscope (Nikon Labophot 2) with programmed hot stage and digital image capture and computer image analysis and enhancement, phase contrast, polarised light, video system, video printer, digital photographic accessories; Nikon Fabre stereomicroscope 20-65X for photomicroscopy. Sample preparation facilities including a microtome and expertise with etching. RMIT Electron Microscopy Suite with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Surface Energy Measurement

Contact angle instrument (Data Physics OCA20) with static and dynamic contact angle, heated stage for melted polymers/materials, automatic fitting of droplet contours and calculation of surface energy polymer and dispersive components using various models.

X-Ray Scattering

Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) (Bruker AXS Nanostar, Bruker GADDS and Bruker AXS D8 Discover). SAXS for study of particulate dispersions, crystalline ordering and morphology. WAXS for study of molecular structures and crystal formations.

Infrared Spectroscopy

FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometers (Perkin-Elmer series 100, 2000, 1725x, 1750) with mid- and near-IR, IR microscopes and Spotlight microscope, full range of sampling accessories for reflectance and transmission applications. FTIR is used for analysis and identification of polymers and other components of polymer formulations such as plasticisers, fillers and surface modifiers.

Mixing and Processing of Polymers

Extruder (Axon B12) with strand die, extrudate conveyor and pelletiser, strip die with calendar rollers. The special Gateway screw provides efficient mixing. Used to prepare pellets of desired compositions and films for mechanical testing and other analyses. Heated hydraulic presses (large and small platen areas), for compression moulding and film preparation. Dispersion and mixing equipment: IKA high torque stirrers with selection of blades, IKA Ultra Turrax with selection of dispersion and dissolver blades, IKA cryogrinding mills with optional blade types, IKA soft and hard material grinding mills.

Molecular Modelling

Simulation of real molecules and calculation of properties from properties of atoms and the interactions between them. The programs used are: 
Gauss View, Gaussian, VMD-NAMD (Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group, University of Illinois and Beckman Institute} Chem Office (Chem3D, ChemDraw, ChemFinder). 
These programs use similar basic tools: molecular mechanics, dynamics, MOPAC. Used to provide models of molecules of interest and calculate properties.

Finite Element Analysis

Nastran and FEMAP software for finite element analysis applied to the mechanical properties of polymer blends, composites and structures.

Other Facilities

Mettler UMX5 microbalance, Mettler HG63 halogen moisture balance, Mettler portable balance, Ohaus analytical balance. Ubelhode solution viscometry, (Schott-Gerate automated system) with dilution control, photo-detector flow readings and computer control and data analysis.
 Colour measurement - Minolta Chromometer 
Temperature programmed ovens, high temperature (1050 °C) furnace, vacuum oven, desiccator cabinets, humidity chambers
Polymer synthesis - extensive range of polymerisation reactors.
Mass spectroscopy - techniques for direct high molar mass (polymer) analysis using MALDI TOF, and GC-mass spectrometers
 NMR - multi-dimension C and H spectroscopy techniques, variable temperature and multi-element probe.

Publications

2007-2011 listed (Total publications: 230 refereed journal papers, 22 book chapters, 8 patents and 378 conference papers on or related to polymer science)

Publication Metrics

Supervised 42 postgraduate students to completion. ISI Web of Science found 183 papers, 1804 times, with average citations per paper of 9.86, with 25 papers being cited 20 times or more, recent citations 171 (2006), 157 (2007), 192 (2008), 238 (2009), 242 (2010), 180 (2011) and h-index of 22{at November 2011}.

Scholarly Book Chapters

S. Venkatesan, M. Pannirselvam, M. Jollands, R. A.Shanks and P. Slatter (2011). Thermogravimetry analysis of deteriorated timber bridge elements. Incorporating Sustainable Practice in Mechanics of Structures and Materials. S. Fragomeni, S. Venkatesan, N. T. K. Lam and S. Setunge. London, UK, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, pp735-738.

R. A. Shanks(2010).Thermal Characterization of Nanocomposites. Recent Advances in Polymer Nanocomposites: Synthesis and Characterization. T. S, S. V. Valsaraj, A. P. Meera and G. E. Zaikov. Leiden, The Netherlands, Koninklijke Brill, pp. 335-355.

R. A. Shanks(2010). Modelling of polymeric fibre-composites and finite element simulation of mechanical properties. Finite Element Analysis, Sciyo InTech, Croatia,pp. 285-314.

R. A. Shanks and B. Rengarajan (2010). Specialty Rubber Nanocomposites. Recent Advances in Polymer Nanocomposites: Synthesis and Characterization. S. Thomas, S. V. Valsaraj, A. P. Meera and G. E. Zaikov. Leiden, The Netherlands, Koninklijke Brill NV, 2010, pp.216-232.

R. A. Shanks and A. Genovese (2009). Fire-retardant properties of polymer nanocomposites. Recent Advances in Polymer Nano-composites. S. Thomas, G. E. Zaikov and S. V. Valsaraj. Leiden, The Netherlands, Koninklijke Brill, pp.439-454.

S. Wong and R. A.Shanks(2009). Biocomposites of natural fibres and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and copolymers: Improved mechanical properties through compatibilization at the interface. Biodegradable polymer blends and composites from renewable resources. L. Yu. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 303-348.

R. A. Shanks(2008). Miscibility, Morphology, and Properties of Polyethylene Blends. Polyolefin Blends. D. Nwabunma and T. Kyu. New Jersey, USA, Wiley Interscience, pp. 59-83.

R. A. Shanks(2008).Polypropylene Natural Cellulosic Fiber Composites, Polyolefin Composites. D. Nwabunma and T. Kyu. New Jersey, USA, Wiley Interscience, pp. 31-43.

Refereed Journal Articles

R. Davy, R. A.Shanks, S.Periasamy, M. Gustafson and B. Zambergs (2011). Development of high stability catalysts to facilitate CO2 capture into water - an alternative to monoethanolamine and amine solvents, in Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd, Netherlands, 4, 1691-1698, ISSN: 1876-6102

K. Frost, J. Barthes, D. Kaminski, E. Lascaris, J. Niere and R. A.Shanks(2011). Thermoplastic starch-silica-polyvinyl alcohol composites by reactive extrusion, in Carbohydrate Polymers, Pergamon, United Kingdom, 84, 343-350, ISSN: 0144-8617

* X. Han, X. Wei, X. Wang and R. A. Shanks (2011). Characterization and Thermal Behaviour of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystals, in Advanced Materials Research, Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, 152-153, 284-287, ISSN: 1022-6680

X. Han, X. Wei, X. Wang and R. A.Shanks (2011). Synthesis, Characterization and Application Polystyrene-Bound Manganese Complexes, in Advanced Materials Research, Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, 152-153, 472-475, ISSN: 1022 6680

R. A.Shanks (2011). Linear thermal expansion, thermal ageing, relaxations and post-cure of thermoset polymer composites using modulated temperature thermomechanometry, in Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Akademiai Kiado Rt., Budapest, Hungary, 106, 151-158, ISSN: 1388-6150

* R. A.Shanks and L. M. W Gunaratne (2011). Comparison of reversible melting behaviour of poly(3- hydroxybutyrate) using quasi-isothermal and other modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry techniques, in Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Akademiai Kiado Rt., Budapest, Hungary, 104, 1-8, ISSN: 1388-6150

R. A.Shanksand L. M. W Gunaratne (2011). Gelatinization and retrogradation of thermoplastic starch characterized using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry, in Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Akademiai Kiado Rt., Budapest, Hungary, 106, 93-99, ISSN: 1388-6150

S. Spoljaric, A. Genovese, T. Goh, A. Blencowe, G. Qiao and R. A.Shanks (2011). Enthalpy and volume relaxation of core-crosslinked star polystyrene/oly(methyl methacrylate) blends, in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, Wiley VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany, 212, 1677-1691, ISSN: 10221352

S. Spoljaric, T. Goh, A. Blencowe, G. Qiao and R. A.Shanks(2011). Thermal, optical, and static/dynamic mechanical properties of linear-core crosslinked star polymer blends, in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, Wiley VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany, 212, 1778-1790, ISSN: 1022-1352

S. Spoljaric, A., Genovese, R. A.Shanks, (2011). Novel elastomer-dumbbell functionalised POSS composites: Thermomechanical and morphological properties, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 123, 585-600.

Z. Al-Hassany, A. Genovese, A., R. A.Shanks(2010). Fire-retardant and fire-barrier poly(vinyl acetate) composites for sealant application, eXPRESS Polymer Letters, 4,pp. 79-93.

K. Bazaka, M. V. Jacob, R. A.Shanks(2010).Fabrication and characterization of RF plasma polymerized thin films from 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol for electronic and biomaterial applications, Advanced Materials Research, 123-125,pp. 323-326.

W. He, R. A.Shanks, Y. You (2010). Total analysis of organic rubber additives, Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis, 30,pp1-5.

S. Houshyar, R. A.Shanks(2010).Interfacial properties of all-polypropylene composites, e-Polymers, 33,(2010), 1-13.

S. Ouajai, P. Ruangwilairat, K. Ongwongsakul, T. Leejarkpai, R. A.Shanks(2010). Morphology and structure of modified oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose fibre, Advanced Materials Research, 93-94,pp607-610.

R. A.Shanks(2010).Physically networked polymers: Materials that change with their environment, eXPRESS Polymer Letters, 4,pp742.

R. A.Shanks(2010).Thermal relaxations of polymers revealed by reversing and non- reversing coefficient of thermal expansion, Advanced Materials Research, 123-125, (2010), 451-454.

R. A.Shanks, S.Wong, C. M. L. Preston (2010). Ceramifying fire-retardant and fire-barrier unsaturated polyester composites, Advanced Materials Research, 123-125, pp23-26.

S. Spoljaric, R. A.Shanks(2010).Poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) – dye-coupled polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes, Advanced Materials Research, 123-125, pp169-172.

C. D. Easton, M. V. Jacob, R. A.Shanks(2009).Fabrication and characterisation of polymer thin-films derived from cineole using radio frequency plasma polymerisation, Polymer, 50,(2009), 3465-3469.

C. D. Easton, M. V. Jacob, R. A.Shanks, B. F. Bowden (2009). Surface and chemical characterization of polyLA thin films fabricated using plasma polymerization, Chemical Vapor Deposition, 15,pp179-185.

K. Frost, D. Kaminski, G. Kirwan, E. Lascaris, and R. A. Shanks (2009). Crystallinity and structure of starch using wide angle X-ray scattering, Carbohydrate Polymers, 78,pp543-548.

S. Houshyar, A. Hodzic, R. A. Shanks (2009). Modelling of polypropylene fibre-matrix composites using finite element analysis, eXPRESS Polymer Letters, 3,pp2-12.

S. Ouajai, R. A. Shanks (2009). Preparation, structure and mechanical properties of all-hemp cellulose biocomposites, Composites Science and Technology, 69,pp2119-2126.

S. Ouajai, R. A. Shanks (2009). Biocomposites of cellulose acetate butyrate with modified hemp cellulose fibres, Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 294,pp213-221.

S. Spoljaric, A. Genovese, R. A. Shanks (2009). Polypropylene-microcrystalline cellulose composites with enhanced compatibility and properties, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 40,pp791-799.

A. Genovese, R. A. Shanks (2008). Fire performance of poly(dimethyl siloxane) composites evaluated by cone calorimetry, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 39, pp398-405.

* L. M. W. K. Gunaratne, R. A. Shanks (2008). Miscibility, melting, and crystallization behavior of poly(hydroxybutyrate) and poly(L-lactic acid) blends, Polymer Engineering and Science, 48,pp1683-1692.

X. Han, S. Zhang, R. A. Shanks, D. Pavel (2008). Poly(4-vinylpyridine)-based hydrogen bonded side-chain liquid crystal polymers, Reactive and Functional Polymers, 68,pp1097-1102.

M. Pannirselvam, A. Genovese, M. C. Jollands, S. N. Bhattacharya, R. A. Shanks (2008). Oxygen barrier property of polypropylene-polyether treated clay nanocomposite, eXPRESS Polymer Letters, 2, pp429–439.

S. Wong, R. A. Shanks (2008). Creep behaviour of biopolymers and modified flax fibre composites, Composite Interfaces, 15, pp131-145.

* A. Al-Mulla, M. Mathew, R. A. Shanks (2007). Isothermal crystallization studies of poly(butylene terephthalate) composites, Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 45, pp1344-1353.

F. T. Cerezo, C. M. L. Preston, R. A. Shanks (2007). Structural, mechanical and dielectric properties of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) graphite oxide nanocomposites, Composites Science and Technology, 67, pp79-91.

F. T. Cerezo, C. M. L. Preston, R. A. Shanks (2007). Morphology, thermal stability, and mechanical behavior of [poly(propylene)-grafted maleic anhydride]-layered expanded graphite oxide composites, Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 292, (2007), 155-168.

L. G. Chen, R. A. Shanks (2007). Thermoplastic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals prepared from solvent-induced phase separation with predictions using solubility parameters, Liquid Crystals, 34,(2007), 1349 - 1356.

A. Genovese, R. A. Shanks (2007). Structural and thermal interpretation of the synergy and interactions between the fire retardants magnesium hydroxide and zinc borate, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 92,pp2-13.

A. Genovese, R. A. Shanks (2007). Time-temperature creep behaviour of poly(propylene) and polar ethylene copolymer blends, Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 292,pp184-196.

A. Hodzic, R. Coakley, R. Curro, C. C. Berndt, R. A. Shanks (2007). Design and optimization of biopolyester bagasse fiber composites, Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, 1,pp46-55.

S. Houshyar, R. A. Shanks (2007). Mechanical and thermal properties of toughened polypropylene composites, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 105,pp390-397.

M. Pannirselvam, R. K. Gupta, S. N. Bhattacharya, R. A. Shanks (2007). Intercalation of montmorillonite by interlayer adsorption and complex formation, Advanced Materials Research, 29-30,pp295-298.

R. A.Shanks(2007). Molecular functionality and self-assembled polymer composites, eXPRESS Polymer Letters, 1, pp481.

D. Simon, A. Holland, R. A. Shanks (2007). Poly(caprolactone) thin film preparation, morphology, and surface texture, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 103,pp1287-1294.

K. W. Thomson, R. A. Shanks, A. Genovese (2007). New ceramifying polymer materials for passive fire protection applications, Journal of ASTM International, 4.

S. Wong, R. A. Shanks, A. Hodzic (2007). Effect of additives on the interfacial strength of poly(l-lactic acid) and poly(3-hydroxy butyric acid)-flax fibre composites, Composites Science and Technology, 67, pp2478-2484.

S. Houshyar and R. A. Shanks (2006). Mechanical and thermal properties of flexible poly(propylene) composites, Macromolecular Materials And Engineering, vol. 291, no. 1, pp. 59-67.

L. Gunaratne and R. A. Shanks (2006). Isothermal crystallisation kinetics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) using step-scan DSC, Journal Of Thermal Analysis And Calorimetry, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 313-319.

L. Gunaratne and R. A. Shanks (2006). Thermal memory of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) using temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry, Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, vol. 44, pp. 70-78.

M. Gower and R. A. Shanks (2006). Acrylic acid level and adhesive performance and peel master-curves of acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives, Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, vol. 44, pp. 1237-1252.

S. Wu, R. A. Shanks and G. Bryant (2006). Properties of hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide with low molecular weight and interaction with surfactant in aqueous solution, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 100, pp. 4348-4360.

*A. Genovese, G. Amarasinghe, M. Glewis, D. Mainwaring and R. A. Shanks (2006). Crystallisation, melting, recrystallisation and polymorphism of n-eicosane for application as a phase change material, Thermochimica Acta, vol. 443, pp. 235-244.

S. Wang, T. Russo, G. Qiao and R. A. Shanks (2006). Admicellar polymerization of styrene with divinyl benzene on alumina particles: the synthesis of white reinforcing fillers, Journal of Materials Science, vol. 41, pp. 7474-7482.

S. Ouajai and R. A. Shanks (2006). Solvent and enzyme induced recrystallization of mechanically degraded hemp cellulose, Cellulose, vol. 13, pp. 31-44.

X. Han, L. Chai, R. A. Shanks and D. Pavel (2006). Monte Carlo simulations of properties of side-chain liquid-crystal polymers, Polymer International, vol. 55, pp. 1323-1329.

R. A. Shanks, A. Hodzic and D. Ridderhof (2006). Composites of poly(lactic acid) with flax fibers modified by interstitial polymerization, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 2305-2313.

D. Pavel, D. Hibbs and R. A. Shanks (2006). Review of main chain liquid crystalline polymers in F. Awaja (ed.) Advanced Research in Polymer Science, Transworld Research Network, Kerala, India, pp. 65-84.

D. Pavel, X. Han and R. A. Shanks (2006). Computer simulation and experimental study of side-chain liquid crystalline polymers in F. Awaja (ed.) Advanced Research in Polymer Science, Transworld Research Network, Kerala, India, pp. 37-50.

Refereed Conference Papers

M. Czajka and R. A. Shanks (2011). Graphite layer nano-composites with polyurethane matrix, in TechConnect World 2011 Proceedings: Nanotech, Clean Technology, Microtech, Bio Nanotech, -- (ed.), Taylor and Francis, Boston, MA, USA, 196-199 (NSTI-Nanotech 2011).

N. Daud and R. A. Shanks (2011). Biomimetic high filler content composites using bisphenol-A ethoxy diacrylate, in TechConnect World 2011 Proceedings: Nanotech, Clean Technology, Microtech, Bio Nanotech, -- (ed.), Taylor and Francis, Boston, MA, USA, 159-162 (NSTI-Nanotech 2011).

I. Kong, S. Spoljaric and R. A. Shanks (2011). Magnetic carbon-nanotube thermoplastic polyurethane composites, in Nanotechnology 2011: Volume 1: Advanced Materials, CNTs, Particles, Films and Composites, Taylor and Francis, Boston, MA, USA, 211-214 (NSTI-Nanotech 2011).

I. Mustapa, A. Nainar and R. A. Shanks (2011). Poly(lactic acid) hemp composites combined with nano-silica, in TechConnect World 2011 Proceedings: Nanotech, Clean Technology, Microtech, Bio Nanotech, -- (ed.), Taylor and Francis, Boston, MA, USA, 240-243 (NSTI-Nanotech 2011).

A. Nainar and R. A. Shanks (2011). Cellulose fiber and nano-fiber composites based on castor oil-polyurethane matrix, in TechConnect World 2011 Proceedings: Nanotech, Clean Technology, Microtech, Bio Nanotech, -- (ed.), Taylor and Francis, Boston, MA, USA, 179-182 (NSTI-Nanotech 2011)

A. Nainar, R. A. Shanks and I. Kong (2011). Starch/MWCNT/epoxy composites for biodegradable batteries, in TechConnect World 2011 Proceedings: Nanotech, Clean Technology, Microtech, Bio Nanotech, -- (ed.), Taylor and Francis, Boston, MA, USA, 244-247 (NSTI-Nanotech 2011).

R. A. Shanks, M. Leonard, M. A. M. Nainar (2011). Processing and modification of cellulose fibres for application in composites. In Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials XIX, D. Bhattacharyya, D.; Lin, R. J. T.; Srivatsan, T. S., Eds. The Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, The University of Auckland: Auckland, New Zealand, 2011; 1366-1377.

R. A. Shanks, I. R. Mustapa (2011). All-poly(lactic acid) composites prepared by compression moulding of non-woven precursors. In Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials XIX, D. Bhattacharyya, D.; Lin, R. J. T.; Srivatsan, T. S., Eds. The Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, The University of Auckland: Auckland, New Zealand, 2011; 663-674.

R. A. Shanks, I. R. Mustapa (2011). All-Poly(lactic acid) Composites Prepared by Compression Moulding of Non-woven Precursors, in Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials XIX, D. Bhattacharyya, R.J.T Lin, T.S. Srivatsan (ed.), University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, 663-674 (Nineteenth International Conference on Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials (PFAM XIX)).

R. A. Shanks, D. Kaminski and M. Gower (2011). Silica-polyacrylate nanocomposite pressure sensitive adhesives, in TechConnect World 2011 Proceedings: Nanotech, Clean Technology, Microtech, Bio Nanotech, -- (ed.), Taylor and Francis, Boston, MA, USA, 600-603 (NSTI-Nanotech 2011).

S. Spoljaric and R. A. Shanks (2011). POSS-substituted hyperbranched polyester blends with thermoplastic polyurethanes, in TechConnect World 2011 Proceedings: Nanotech, Clean Technology, Microtech, Bio Nanotech, -- (ed.), Taylor and Francis, Boston, MA, USA, 628-631 (TechConnect World 2011 Proceedings: Nanotech, Clean Technology, Microtech, Bio Nanotech).

S. Spoljaric, I. Kong, R. A. Shanks (2011). Processing effects on the mechanical, thermal and magnetic properties of magnetically-functionalised elastomer composites. In Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials XIX, D. Bhattacharyya, D.; Lin, R. J. T.; Srivatsan, T. S., Eds. The Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, The University of Auckland: Auckland, New Zealand, 2011; 651-662.

S. Venkatesan, M. Pannirselvam, M. Jollands, R. A. Shanks and P. Slatter (2011). Thermogravimetry analysis of deteriorated timber bridge elements, in Incorporating Sustainable Practice in Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Sam Fragomeni, Srikanth Venkatesan, Nelson T. K. Lam and Sujeeva Setunge (ed.), Taylor and Francis, London, United Kingdom, 735-738 (21st Australian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials)

S. Ouajai, A. Reung-u-rai, W. Prissanaroon-Ouajai, A. Hodzic, R. A. Shanks (2010). Thermoplastic composites with cellulose bast-fibre. In 7th Asian–Australasian Conference on Composite Materials, The Asian–Australasian Association for Composite Materials: Taipei, Taiwan; pp O-Gen-11, 1-4.

S. Ouajai, A. Reung-u-rai, W. Prissanaroon-Ouajai, T. Leejarkpai, R. A. Shanks (2010). Reactive extrusion and characterization of maleic anhydride-grafted poly(lactic acid) as an interfacial compatibilizer in biopolymer composite. In Pure and Applied Chemistry International Conference: Challenges in Chemistry for Sustainable Development, Ubon Ratchatani University: Ubon Ratchatani, Thailand; pp 926-929.

S. Ouajai, P. Ruangwilairat, K. Ongwongsakul, T. Leejarkpai, R. A. Shanks (2010). Inter-phase and mechanical properties of modified oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose fibre and poly(lactic acid) composites. In 7th Asian–Australasian Conference on Composite Materials, The Asian–Australasian Association for Composite Materials: Taipei, Taiwan; pp Tue-SE03-04, 1-4.

M. Pannirselvam, R. K. Gupta, B. J. Park, H. J. Choi, M. C. Jollands, S. N. Bhattacharya, R. A. Shanks (2010). Effects of polyether treated clay on thermal properties of polypropylene clay nanocomposites. In 7th Asian–Australasian Conference on Composite Materials, The Asian–Australasian Association for Composite Materials: Taipei, Taiwan; pp M-Gen-11, 1-4.

M. Pannirselvam, R. K. Gupta, B. J. Park, H. J. Choi, M. C. Jollands, S. N. Bhattacharya, R. A. Shanks (2010). Percolation threshold and activation energy of polypropylene–alkyl polyoxyethylene–montmorillonite intercalated nanocomposites. In 7th Asian–Australasian Conference on Composite Materials, The Asian–Australasian Association for Composite Materials: Taipei, Taiwan; pp M-Gen-10, 1-4.

R. A. Shanks (2010). Viscoelasticity of thermoplastic polyurethane silica nanocomposites. In 7th Asian–Australasian Conference on Composite Materials, The Asian–Australasian Association for Composite Materials: Taipei, Taiwan; pp N-Gen-02, 1-4.

R. A. Shanks (2010). Thermal expansion, ageing, relaxations and post-cure of polymer composites using modulated temperature thermomechanometry. In 38th North American Thermal Analysis Symposium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; Vol. 38, pp 1-12.

R. A. Shanks (2010). Thermomechanical properties of advanced epoxy composites. In 14th European Conference on Composite Materials, Kollar, L.; Czigany, T.; Karger-Kocsis, J., Eds. European Society for Composite Materials: Budapest, Hungary; p 269.

R. A. Shanks, L. M. W. K. Gunaratne (2010). Gelatinization of starch characterized using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry. In 38th North American Thermal Analysis Symposium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; Vol. 38, pp 1-10.

S. Spoljaric, A. Genovese, T. Kopplmayr, R. A. Shanks (2010). Long term structural integrity of high density polyethylene blends investigated by measurement of creep. In Proceedings – 34th Annual Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting, Australian Institute of Physics: Waiheke Island, Auckland, NZ; pp 1-5.

S. Spoljaric, T. K. Goh, A. Blencowe, G. Qiao, R. A. Shanks (2010). Thermal ageing and relaxation of core-crosslinked star containing composites using modulated temperature–thermomechanometry. In 38th North American Thermal Analysis Symposium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; Vol. 38, pp 1-11.

S. Spoljaric, T. Kopplmayr, A. Genovese, A. Blencowe, G. G. Qiao, R. A. Shanks (2010). Nanocomposites with physical crosslinks introduced by core cross-linked star polymers into a like-polymer. In Proceedings – 34th Annual Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting, Australian Institute of Physics: Waiheke Island, Auckland, NZ; pp 1-4.

S. Spoljaric, R. A. Shanks (2010). Static and modulated-force mechanical properties of functionalised POSS-elastomer nanocomposites. In 7th Asian–Australasian Conference on Composite Materials, The Asian–Australasian Association for Composite Materials: Taipei, Taiwan, 2010; pp M-Gen-06, 1-4.

S. Wong, R. A. Shanks (2010). Fire-retardant and fire-barrier polyurethane foam sealants containing a ceramifying filler composition for structural integrity. In 7th Asian–Australasian Conference on Composite Materials, The Asian–Australasian Association for Composite Materials: Taipei, Taiwan; pp TUE-SE07-05, 1-4.

K. Frost, D. Kaminski, R. A. Shanks (2009). Extrusion grafting of starch with reactive dyes to form sheets with reduced retrogradation, In 33rd Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting, Australian Institute of Physics: Wagga Wagga.

A. Hodzic, R. A. Shanks, L. McCarthy, R. Wu (2009). Optimization of structure and mechanical properties of natural fibre–polypropylene thermoformed sheet. In 10th Deformation and Fracture of Composites, Soutis, C., Ed. Krooto Research Institute: Sheffield UK, Vol. 10.

H. Y. Huang, B. Rengarajan, R. A. Shanks (2009). Static, dynamic and modulated thermomechanical behaviour of toughened polypropylene composites, In 33rd Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting, Australian Institute of Physics: Wagga Wagga.

H. Y. Huang, B. Rengarajan, R. A. Shanks (2009). Elasticity, toughening and damping enhancement of polypropylene after blending with polysiloxane elastomers, In 33rd Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting, Australian Institute of Physics: Wagga Wagga.

S. Ouajai, T. Ungtrakul, A. Reung-u-rai, R. A. Shanks (2009). Poly(lactic acid) based single composites, In 17th International Conference on Composite Materials, Banks, W. M.; Wisnom, M. R., Eds. ICM Communications Ltd: Edinburgh, UK, pp 30, F23.7.

M. Pannirselvam, H. Y. Huang, F. Antolasic, R. A. Shanks (2009). FTIR imaging of polypropylene blends and micro-composites, In Chemeca 09, Heyns, T., Ed. Institution of Chemical Engineers in Australia (IChemE), Engineers Australia (EA), the Royal Australian Chemical Institute (RACI) and the Society of Chemical Engineers New Zealand (SCENZ): Perth WA Australia, p 327.

R. A. Shanks, S. McRae, M. Pannirselvam (2009). Thermal stability and thermomechanical properties of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), In Chemeca 09, Heyns, T., Ed. Institution of Chemical Engineers in Australia (IChemE), Engineers Australia (EA), the Royal Australian Chemical Institute (RACI) and the Society of Chemical Engineers New Zealand (SCENZ): Perth WA Australia; p 229.

R. A. Shanks, S. McRae, S. (2009). Pannirselvam, M., Thermomechanical properties of polypropylene isomers and copolymers, In Chemeca 09, Heyns, T., Ed. Institution of Chemical Engineers in Australia (IChemE), Engineers Australia (EA), the Royal Australian Chemical Institute (RACI) and the Society of Chemical Engineers New Zealand (SCENZ: Perth WA Australia; p 228.

R. A. Shanks, S. Ouajai (2009). Melting and crystal rearrangement of polypropylenes with comparison of various modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry techniques, In ASTA2009 - Asian Conference on Thermal Analysis and Applications, Chinsirikul, W., Ed. MTEC: Bangkok, Thailand; pp 146-151.

R. A. Shanks, S. Ouajai and S. McRae (2009). Thermomechanical static and viscoelastic properties of polypropylenes, In ASTA2009 - Asian Conference on Thermal Analysis and Applications, Chinsirikul, W., Ed. MTEC: Bangkok, Thailand; pp 152-156.

S. Spoljaric, A. Genovese, T. K. Goh, G. Qiao, R. A. Shanks (2009). Annealing and thermal history relaxations of polymer nanocomposites with hyperbranched polymer particles, 33rd Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting, Australian Institute of Physics: Wagga Wagga.

* S. Spoljaric, A. Genovese, G. Qiao, R. A. Shanks (2009). Temperature, structural and relaxation asymmetry contributions to physical ageing of polymer–silica nanocomposites, In 33rd Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting, Australian Institute of Physics, Wagga Wagga.

S. Venkatesan, M. Pannirselvam, S. Setunge, R. A. Shanks (2009). Chemical analysis of deteriorated timber bridge elements, In 3rd Small Bridges Conference, 7-9 July; Sydney, Australia.

K. Frost, E. Lascaris, W. Gunaratne, B. Rengarajan, R. A. Shanks (2008). Crystallinity and structures of starch using wide angle X-ray scattering. In International Conference on Polymer Blends, Thomas, S., Ed. Mahatma Gandhi University: Kottayam, Kerala, India; Vol. 2, pp P11,1-4.

A. Genovese, Z. AlHassany, R. A. Shanks (2008). Cone calorimetry and condensed phase structural changes of fire retardant poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer composites. In Polymer Processing Society, PPS24, Solerno, Italy.

A. Genovese, Y. Habsuda, G. P. Simon, R. A. Shanks (2008). Moisture sorption characteristics of thermoplastic starch: A kinetic evaluation on the dependence of water activity. In Polymer Processing Society, PPS24, Solerno, Italy.

A. Genovese, D. Kaminski, A. Rahaman, R. A. Shanks (2008). Morphology and modulated force – thermomechanical mastercurves of polypropylene-bentonite nanocomposites. In Materials Physics and Chemistry Conference, Wagga Wagga, 2008.

* A. Genovese, S. Spoljaric, R. A. Shanks (2008). Crystalline polymorphism in polypropylene copolymer nanocomposites. In Polymer Processing Society, PPS24, Solerno, Italy.

A. Genovese, S. Spoljaric, R. A. Shanks (2008). Polypropylene composites reinforced with surface treated microcrystalline cellulose: Enhanced compatibility and creep resistance. In Polymer Processing Society, PPS24, Solerno, Italy.

W. Gunaratne, B. Rengarajan, R. A. Shanks (2008). Thermal characterisation of maize starch by modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry, In International Conference on Polymer Blends, Thomas, S., Ed. Mahatma Gandhi University: Kottayam, Kerala, India; pp P8, 1-4.

W. Gunaratne, B. Rengarajan, R. A. Shanks (2008). Melting behaviour of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) using various differential scanning calorimetry methods, In International Conference on Polymer Blends, Thomas, S., Ed. Mahatma Gandhi University: Kottayam, Kerala, India, 2008; pp P10,1-4.

H. Y. Huang, B. Rengarajan, R. A. Shanks (2008). Thermomechanical properties of polypropylene-polysiloxane blends, In International Conference on Polymer Blends, S. Thomas, Ed. Mahatma Gandhi University: Kottayam, Kerala, India; pp P14, 1-4.

D. Kaminski, A. Genovese, R. A. Shanks (2008). Dynamic mechanical properties of elastomeric poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate)–silica nanocomposites. In Polymer Processing Society, PPS24, Solerno, Italy.

D. Kaminski, B. Rengarajan, R. A. Shanks (2008). Shift factor models applied to modulated force thermomechanometry of silica-filled thermoplastic polyurethanes, In International Conference on Polymer Blends, Kottayam, Kerala, India, 22-24 September 2008, 2008; Thomas, S., Ed. Mahatma Gandhi University: Kottayam, Kerala, India; pp P9, 1-4.

D. Kaminski, R. A. Shanks (2008). Static creep and recovery of filled elastomers using thermomechanometry. In Materials Physics and Chemistry Conference, Wagga Wagga.

D. Kaminski, R. A. Shanks (2008). Relaxation models applied to modulated force thermomechanometry of a silica filled flexible polymer. In Materials Physics and Chemistry Conference, Wagga Wagga.

M. Pannirselvam, A. G. Chryss, J. H. Park, H. J. Choi, S. N. Bhattacharya, R. A. Shanks (2008). In Thermal mechanical and gas barrier properties of polypropylene–polyether clay nanocomposite, International Conference of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICONN), Melbourne.

M. Pannirselvam, D. Kaminski, F. Antolasic, R. K. Gupta, S. N. Bhattacharya, R. A. Shanks (2008). Linear viscoelastic properties of polypropylene–polyether treated nanocomposites, In International Conference of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICONN), Melbourne.

M. Pannirselvam, B. Rengarajan, A. Genovese, F. Antolasic, R. K. Gupta, A. G. Chryss, M. C. Jollands, S. N. Bhattacharya, R. A. Shanks (2008). Effect of polyether treated clay on the rheological properties of polypropylene nanocomposites, In International Conference on Polymer Blends, Thomas, S., Ed. Mahatma Gandhi University: Kottayam, Kerala, India; pp P13,1-4.

B. Rengarajan, R. A. Shanks (2008). Preparation and morphology of polypropylene/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites, In International Conference on Polymer Blends, Thomas, S., Ed. Mahatma Gandhi University: Kottayam, Kerala, India; pp IL72, 1-4.

S. Spoljaric, A. Genovese, T. K. Goh, G. Qiao, B. Rengarajan, R. A. Shanks (2008). Polymer nanocomposites with core cross-linked star polymers. In International Conference on Polymer Blends, Thomas, S., Ed. Mahatma Gandhi University: Kottayam, Kerala, India; Vol. 2, pp P12, 1-4.

Z. AlHassany, A. Genovese, W. Gunaratne, R. A. Shanks (2007). Thermal degradation of fire retardant poly(vinyl acetate) composites. In International Conference on Polymer Processing, Beijing, China.

* W. Gunaratne, R. A. Shanks (2007). Miscibility, melting and crystallisation behaviour of biodegradable poly(hydroxybutyrate) and poly(d,l-lactic acid) blends using temperature modulated differential calorimetry. In International Conference on Polymer Processing, Beijing, China.

D. Kaminski, T. Russo, D. Solomon, W. Gunaratne, R. A. Shanks (2007). Viscoelasticity of crosslinked poly(ethylene-co-propylene) composites. In International Conference on Polymer Processing, Beijing, China.

M. Pannirselvam, A. G. Chryss, S. N. Bhattacharya, R. A. Shanks (2007). Rheology of polypropylene–polyether treated clay nanocomposites. In International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS), Melbourne.

M. Pannirselvam, R. K. Gupta, S. N. Bhattacharya, R. A. Shanks (2007). In Polypropylene clay nanocomposites prepared with polyether intercalated clay, Polymer Processing Society (PPS23), Brazil, 2007; Brazil.

M. Pannirselvam, R. K. Gupta, S. N. Bhattacharya, R. A. Shanks (2007). Surfactant intercalated clay nanocomposites compatibilized using polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride. In ICCS, Melbourne, 2007.

M. Pannirselvam, R. K. Gupta, S. N. Bhattacharya, R. A. Shanks (2007). Synthesis of a novel compatibiliser for polypropylene clay nanocomposites. In Chemeca, Melbourne, 2007.

M. Pannirselvam, I. Ivanov, S. N. Bhattacharya, R. A. Shanks (2007). Composition and mechanical properties of polypropylene montmorillonite nanocomposites. In Chemeca, Melbourne, 2007.

A. Rahaman, R. A. Shanks, A. Genovese, W. Gunaratne (2007). Morphology and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy of polypropylene bentonite nanocomposites. In International Conference on Polymer Processing, Beijing, China.

R. A. Shanks, W. Gunaratne (2007). Viscoelastic properties of thermoplastic polyurethane nanocomposites. In International Conference on Polymer Processing, Beijing, China.