Referencing guides

There are many referencing styles. Make sure that you know which referencing style your School or lecturer wants you to use.

The Library creates guides for most referencing styles used at RMIT University, and provides links to other referencing resources. If you need help using references in your assignments and essays, please contact your lecturer, or visit the Study and Learning Centre website.

What is referencing?

When writing an essay or assignment, you are required to acknowledge all the sources of information that you have used, whether you are directly copying the words of another author (quoting) or putting their ideas into your own words (paraphrasing). This is so you can

  • prove that your work has a substantial, factual basis,
  • show the research you've done to reach your conclusions,
  • allow your readers to identify and retrieve the references for their own use.

References have two parts:

  • In-text references (e.g. author and year) for using within the text of your work
  • The reference list, for providing full details of each in-text reference used in that work.

Learn more about referencing:

Online tutorials from the RMIT Study and Learning Centre:

Other tutorials:

RMIT HARVARD (including RMIT Business)

Harvard is an author-date referencing style widely accepted in scholarly circles. Each reference is indicated in the text by the author and date of the publication cited, sometimes with added information, such as page numbers. The full details of these references are listed at the end of the text in a Reference list. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.

* Harvard Quick Guide (DOC, 76 KB, 2 pages); updated July 2014

College of Business: Guidelines for referencing and presentation in written reports and essays (RTF, 1,286 KB, 52 pages); updated April 2012

The above guides are based on the latest, 6th edition of the Style manual for authors, editors and printers published in 2002.

See also:

APA (American Psychological Association)

APA is an author-date referencing style produced by the American Psychological Association. Initially developed for the social sciences, it is used by a number of disciplines. There have been several editions of the Publication Manual, the aim of which is to aid authors in the preparation of manuscripts. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.

* APA Quick Guide (DOC, 73 KB, 3 pages); updated November 2014

The above APA guides are based on the latest, 6th edition of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association published in 2010.

See also:

VANCOUVER (International Committee for Medical Journal Editors)

Vancouver is a numbered referencing style that is predominantly used in the medical field. It follows rules established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It is also known as: Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Each source is given the same number each time it is referred to in the work. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.

Vancouver Quick Guide (DOC, 46 KB, 2 pages); updated September 2012

See also:

CHICAGO

Chicago is a referencing style developed by the University of Chicago. It offers two different types of referencing, either: (a) a footnotes-bibliography style, or (b) an author-date style. Our guide provides examples using the footnotes-bibliography style. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.

Chicago Quick Guide (RTF, 80 KB, 2 pages); updated December 2007

See also:

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) citation style is a numbered referencing style used in electrical, electronic and computing publications. IEEE provides instructions for authors for each type of publication such as journals, magazines, newsletters, and standards. References are numbered in the order of appearance in the article, not in alphabetical order. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.

IEEE Quick Guide (RTF, 104 KB, 2 pages); updated September 2012

See also:

MLA (Modern Languages Association of America)

The MLA referencing style was developed by the Modern Languages Association of America (MLA). The organisation was founded in 1883, when modern languages were beginning to gain a place in the curriculum alongside the classical languages – ancient Greek and Latin. The MLA Handbook originated over fifty years ago being first published as the “MLA Style Sheet” in 1951. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.

MLA Quick Guide (RTF, 96 KB, 2 pages); updated December 2007

See also: MLA handbook for writers of research papers, 7th edition

AGLC (Australian Guide to Legal Citation)

The Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) is a required referencing style for students enrolled in the Juris Doctor program at RMIT University. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.

The AGLC 3rd edition (2010) is published by the Melbourne University Law Review Association Inc. in collaboration with the Melbourne Journal of International Law Inc.

See also Legal Research Methods – Referencing library subject guide.

ACS (American Chemical Society)

ACS is a referencing style produced by the American Chemical Society. It offers two different types of referencing, either; (a) a numbered style, or (b) an author-date style. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.

AIP (American Institute of Physics)

AIP is a numbered referencing style produced by the American Institute of Physics. References are numbered in the order of appearance in the article and listed in that order at the end of the article. Always follow information given to you by your lecturer regarding referencing.

Referencing guides from other universities

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